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10 STEPS FOR OVERCOMING RESISTANCE 1) Obtain information on attitudes and morale. 2) Understand how behavior affects the company and how resistance manifests. 3) Evaluate these attitudes and behaviors. 4) Establish an open-door policy and an open-mind concept. 5) Become an effective listener. 6) Use time effectively to avoid the common pitfall of not enough time to do, listen, collect data, learn. 7) Provide tools - education/training in latest techniques, technologies, etc. 8) Measure results of team activities to demonstrate interest. 9) Reward people/teams for performance stages. 10 Don't procrastinate; make decisions.

3 Mu Three Japanese words that mean waste (muda), strain (muri), and discrepancy (mura).

5S Five Japanese words that describe workplace and individual cleanliness activities. Straighten up your workplace or desk. (Seiri) Sort out your equipment. (Seiton) Sweep and clean your workplace. (Seiso) Spotlessly maintain your appearance and character. (Seiketsu) Self-discipline to follow rules, procedures, and standards. (Shitsuke) 

5-Whys Keep asking why at each successive level of detail. 

 AA - Abbreviated Analysis 

AALA American Association for Laboratory Accreditation 

ABSCISSA - The horizontal axis of a graph.

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) AQL is limit of a satisfactory process average at a particular quality level when a continuing series of lots is considered. 

ACCEPTANCE REGION ALPHA RISK - The region of values for which the null hypothesis is accepted. 

Acceptance Sampling Inspection of a sample from a lot to decide whether to accept or not accept that lot. There are two types - attributes sampling and variables sampling. 

Accredited Registrars are qualified organizations certified by a national body to perform audits to the QS9000 standard and to register the audited facility as meeting these requirements for a given commodity. 

Accuracy The closeness of agreement between an observed value and an accepted reference value. Also see Precision.

Activity - A name process, function, or task that occurs over time and has recognizable results. Activities combine to form business processes.

 Activity A process, function or task that occurs over time and has recognizable results. Activities combine to form business processes. 

Activity Accounting - The collection of financial and operation performance data about significant activities of an enterprise.

Activity Analysis: the analysis and measurement (in terms of time, cost, and throughput) of distinct units of work that make up a process.

Activity Based Costing (ABC) An accounting technique that allows an enterprise to determine the actual costs associated with each product and service produced by that enterprise without regard to the organizational structure of the enterprise.

Activity measure - A performance value assigned to an activity's primary output.

Activity model - A graphic representation of a business process that exhibits the activities and their interdependencies that make up the business process to any desired level of detail. An activity model reveals the interactions between activities in terms of inputs and outputs while showing the controls placed on each activity and the types of resources assigned to each activity.

Activity model (AS-IS) - An activity model that portrays how a business process is currently structured. It is used to establish a baseline for subsequent business process improvement actions or programs.

Activity model (TO-BE) - An activity model that results from a business process redesigned action or program. The TO-BE model shows how the business process will function after the improvement action is implemented.

Activity Model A graphic representation of a business process that exhibits the activities and their interdependencies that make up the business process to any desired level of detail. An activity model reveals the interactions between activities in terms of inputs and outputs while showing the controls placed on each activity and the types of resources assigned to each activity. 

Activity, non-value added - Any activity that provides a negative return on the investment or allocation of resources to that activity. Within broad limits, the enterprise benefits by allocating less resource to non-value added activities.

Activity, value added - Any activity that contributes directly to the performance of a mission, and could not be eliminated without impairing the mission.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) - An accounting technique that allows an enterprise to determine the actual costs associated with each product and service produced by that enterprise without regard to the organizational structure of the enterprise.

Activity-based costing (ABC) A system for making business decisions based on cost information of fundamental business activities as tasks related to product design, development, quality, manufacturing, distribution, customer acquisition, service and support. ABC is sometimes considered a form of business process re-engineering as it insists on surfacing a manageable number of cost drivers that can be used to trace variable business costs to customer, products and processes. 

Activity-Based Costing: a set of accounting methods used to identify and describe costs and required resources for activities within processes

Activity-Based Management (ABM) - A system of management that seeks to optimize the value-added activities performed by the enterprise while at the same time minimizing or eliminating the non-value added activities, resulting in overall improvements in the effectiveness and the efficiency of the enterprise in serving its customers.

Adequacy Used in QS-9000. Indicates the intent of the standard has been bet, given the scope of the supplier's operation. 

Affinity Diagram A tool used to organize ideas, usually generated through brainstorming, into groups of related thoughts. The emphasis is on a pre-rational, gut-fell sort of grouping, often done by the members of the group with little or no talking. Also known as the KJ method after its creator, Kawakita Jiro.

Affinity Diagram A way to organize facts, opinions, ideas and issues into natural groupings as an aid to diagnosis on a complex problem. A large number of ideas are generated and then organized into groupings to reveal major themes. 

Affinity Diagram is a creative process, used with or by a group, to gather and organize ideas, opinions, issues, etc

Affinity Diagram method (KJ method) clarifies important but unresolved problems by collecting verbal data from disordered and confused situations and analyzing that data by mutual affinity. It is typically represented graphically as nested squared ellipses (concepts) which have smaller and smaller subgroupings of concepts.

AHP Analytical Hierarchy Process 

AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group 

AIS - Automated Information System

Algorithm (1) A finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps. (2) Any sequence of operations for performing a specific task.

Algorithm analysis A software task to ensure that the algorithms selected are correct, appropriate, and stable, and meet all accuracy, timing, and sizing requirements.

Alignment: the degree of agreement, conformance and consistency among organizational purpose, vision and values; structures, systems, and processes; and individual skills and behaviors.

Alignment-a scale which measures how close an employee's personal needs are to the organization's needs. 

ALPHA RISK - The probability of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in reality, the null hypothesis is true. 

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS - A tentative explanation which indicates that an event does not follow a chance distribution; a contrast to the null hypothesis. 

AMEC - Army Management Engineering College

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) A US program to assure businesses and their goods and services are accessible to people with disabilities. The law defines accessibility on the basis of function, and thus is a good fit with QFD to prioritize functions according to customer needs. Thus, with a clear definition of customer driven functions, we can craft job descriptions and tasks to take advantage of the abilities of people with disabilities.

Analysis of Means (ANOM) Developed by Ellis R. Ott in 1967 (later enhanced by Edward Schilling), ANOM is a statistical procedure for troubleshooting industrial processes and analyzing the results of experimental designs with factors at fixed levels. It provides a graphical display of data. Ellis R. Ott developed the procedure in 1967 because he observed that non-statisticians had difficulty understanding analysis of variance. 

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) a basic statistical technique for analyzing experimental data. It subdivides the total variation of a data set into meaningful component parts associated with specific sources of variation in order to test a hypothesis on the parameters of the model or to estimate variance components. 

Analysis(1) To separate into elemental parts or basic principles so as to determine the nature of the whole (2) A course of reasoning showing that a certain result is a consequence of assumed premises. (3) (ANSI) The methodical investigation of a problem, and the separation of the problem into smaller related units for further detailed study.

ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS The Analytic Network Process (ANP), though based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is a system for the analysis, synthesis, and justification of complex decisions with the capability to model non-linear relations between the elements. ANP allows the decision maker(s) to leap beyond the traditional hierarchy to the interdependent environment of network modeling. The ANP is designed for problems characterized by the added complexity of interdependencies such as feedback and dependencies among problem elements. Using a network approach makes it possible to represent and analyze interactions, incorporate non-linear relations between the elements, and synthesize mutual effects by a single logical procedure.

Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Developed by Thomas Saaty, AHP provides a proven, effective means to deal with complex decision making and can assist with identifying and weighting selection criteria, analyzing the data collected for the criteria and expediting the decision-making process.

Anomaly. Anything observed in the documentation or operation of software that deviates from expectations based on previously verified software products or reference documents. See: bug, defect, error, exception, fault.

Appearance Item Is a product that is visible once the vehicle is completed. Certain customers will identify appearance items on the engineering drawings. In these cases, special approval for appearance (color, grain, texture, etc.) is required prior to production part submissions. 

Application software Software designed to fill specific needs of a user; for example, software for navigation, payroll, or process control. Contrast with support software; system software.

Apportionment Synonymous with the term Reliability Apportionment, which is the assignment of reliability goals from system to subsystem in such a way that the whole system will have the required reliability. 

Approved Drawing Is an engineering drawing signed by the engineer and released through the customer's system. 

Approved Material Approved Materials are materials governed either by industry standard specifications (e.g., SAE, ASTM, DIN, ISO) or by customer specifications. 

APQC American Productivity & Quality Council 

APQP Advanced Product Quality Planning 

AQP Advanced Quality Plan 

Architecture The organizational structure of a system or component. 

Arrow Diagram is another term for a PERT or CPM chart. It is a graphic description of the sequential steps that must be completed before a project can be completed. 

Arrow Diagram method establishes the most suitable daily plan and monitors its progress efficiently. ... The arrow diagram method utilized by PERT or CPM, is a network of lines that connect all the elements related to plan execution. It is typically represented graphically by either a horizontal or vertical tree structure connecting the elements.

As Is Process: a description of the current flow of a process, including subprocesses and activities, showing how products and services are created

AS-IS Model A model that represents the current stage of the organization modeled, without any specific improvements included. 

Assertion A logical expression specifying a program state that must exist or a set of conditions that program variables must satisfy at a particular point during program execution.

Assertion checking Checking of user-embedded statements that assert relationships between elements of a program. An assertion is a logical expression that specifies a condition or relation among program variables. Tools that test the validity of assertions as the program is executing or tools that perform formal verification of assertions have this feature.

Assessment An evaluation process including a document review, an on-site audit and an analysis and report. Customers may also include a self-assessment, internal audit results and other materials in the assessment.

ASSIGNABLE CAUSE - A source of variation which is non-random; a change in the source ("VITAL FEW" variables) will produce a significant change of some magnitude in the response (dependent variable), e.g., a correlation exists; the change may be due to an intermittent in-phase effect or a constant cause system which may or may not be highly predictable; an assignable cause is often signaled by an excessive number of data points outside a control limit and/or a non-random pattern within the control limits; an unnatural source of variation; most often economical to eliminate. 

Assignable Cause The cause(s) of variation in a process which have a source that is identified, and can be eventually eliminated. [Same as Special Cause] 

ASSIGNABLE VARIATIONS - Variations in data which can be attributed to specific causes. 

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials 

ATTRIBUTE - A characteristic that may take on only one value, e.g. 0 or 1. 

Attribute A property or characteristic that is common to some or all of the instances of an entity. An attribute represents the use of a domain in the context of an entity. 

Attribute Data - Numerical information at the nominal level; subdivision is not conceptually meaningful; data which represents the frequency of occurrence within some discrete category, e.g., 42 solder shorts.

Attribute(s) Data 1. Product, process , or component data that is qualitative, rather than quantitative in nature. 2. Product, process , or component data that is measured strictly by either conforming or not. 

 Attributes data are qualitative data that can be counted for recording and analysis. Examples include the presence or absence of a required label, the installation of all required fasteners. Attributes data are not acceptable for production part submissions unless variables data cannot be obtained. The control charts based on attribute data are percent chart, number of affected units chart, count chart, count-per-unit chart, quality score chart, and demerit chart. 

Attributes data Data that is counted in discrete units such as dollars, hours, items, and yes/no options. The alternative to attributes data is variables data, which is data that is measured on a continuous and infinite scale such as temperature or distance. Charts that use attribute data include bar charts, pie charts, Pareto charts and some control charts.

AUDIT - A periodic inspection to ensure that a process is conforming to its specifications.

Audit (Quality) An independent review conducted to compare some aspect of quality performance with a standard for that performance. (Juran, Quality Control Handbook)

Audit trail(1) (ISO) Data in the form of a logical path linking a sequence of events, used to trace the transactions that have affected the contents of a record. (2) A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction, reviews, and examination of the sequence of environments and activities surrounding or leading to each event in the path of a transaction from its inception to output of final results.

audit(1)An independent examination of a work product or set of work products to assess compliance with specifications, standards, contractual agreements, or other criteria. (2) (ANSI) To conduct an independent review and examination of system records and activities in order to test the adequacy and effectiveness of data security and data integrity procedures, to ensure compliance with established policy and operational procedures, and to recommend any necessary changes. 

Authority- ability of a team to budget, to have access to a petty cash fund. 

Availability A product or service's ability to perform its intended function at a given time and under appropriate conditions. It can be expressed by the ratio operative time/total time where operative time is the time that it is functioning or ready to function.

Average chart (X-bar chart) A control chart in which the average of the subgroup, represented by the X-bar, is to determine the stability or lack thereof in the process. Average charts are usually paired with range charts or sample standard deviation charts for complete analysis.

Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) The expected average quality level of outgoing product for a given value of incoming product quality. 

Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL) The maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification.


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